Finally got round to fixing the server yet again
An interface for connecting an electric guitar to a Tesla coil.
The Connerlabs blog was hacked several years ago, and I finally got round to fixing it! It’s now back and upgraded to the latest version of WordPress. Look out for more content soon! 🙂
This is a long story, but it should make up for not having posted anything in almost a year. 🙂 Anyway, it started in 2010, when I headed off to Whistler Bike Park with the intention of making all the jumps on A-Line. I made it home without any life-changing injuries, but on returning to Scotland I discovered I had lost the will to ride, and all my old mountain biking buddies had bought road bikes and had children. The following year I decided to sell my collection of mountain bikes and take up rowing. After many hundreds of miles of floundering in various boats, I found myself on the Castle Semple Rowing Club’s veteran squad. I’ve mostly rowed in quads, fours and eights, but this year I’m trying to race the single scull.
Ah, the single scull. I want to write about it like a Victorian warning his readers of the evils of the penny farthing that bucketh its rider off in the street. It’s basically a long, narrow plastic tub with 2 paddles, how hard can it be? Well, it is narrower than your backside and completely unstable, and to get it up to racing speed requires at least 30 strokes per minute with a good fraction of your body weight behind each one. The oar blades have to go in at just the right depth and come out again cleanly, and you also have to keep track of where you are and steer a course backwards without looking over your shoulder too much.
If I stay calm and don’t try too hard, I have a chance. If I get nervous, the boat starts to lurch around. If I try to figure out what is going on and fix it, that just makes it worse.
All this was explained to me by Rachel our coach from a small motorboat on Castle Semple Loch, after a series of disastrous 200m and 500m pieces at what was supposed to be race pace. “I can’t fault your committment”, she said, “but you’re getting nervous and you’re overthinking it. You know what I like to do, is pick a song with the right tempo and sing it to myself. Nothing too manic though. I like the Nolans.”
Suddenly it dawned on me that sculling had become a metaphor for life itself. Hadn’t I just spent a day lurching around the office and making things worse through trying to fix them? Made an entire career out of getting nervous and overthinking things?
Well, now I’m in the mood for dancing.
Ever since the Raspberry Pi came out, I’ve been experimenting with its audio capabilities. The latest audio gizmo available for it is the Wolfson Pi Audio Card, which promises 24 bit, 192kHz recording and playback, with analog and digital I/O, for a very reasonable price. So of course I ordered one straight away. 🙂
After waiting a month I finally got my hands on it. The software installation is somewhat unclear so I will document what I did here. I didn’t want to use the Wolfson official image as it was a massive 8GB download. I started with a copy of the image that I developed for PiTunes, and applied this patch to it, which adds the Wolfson kernel and the support files for the audio card. I then changed mpd.conf to use audio output device hw0,0 (it was previously 1,0 for the USB audio device) and added a call to SPDIF_playback.sh in my .bash_login file, to set the card up for digital output.
I also removed the invocation of pikeyd from /etc/rc.local, as the keypad and encoder were not present. They can’t be used anyway, since the Wolfson audio card hogs all of the GPIO pins. It doesn’t really matter, as MPD can always be controlled remotely.
On firing this up, I was surprised to find that it worked first time! 🙂 I verified the output to be bit perfect at 24 bit, 96kHz. This is possibly the best value for money HD audio source you can get anywhere: you should be able to pick up a Raspberry Pi, a Wolfson Audio Card, a wifi dongle and a hard disk for under £100.
Dear reader, I apologise for the lack of blogging recently. Here is a double helping.
First of all, I’ve been having great fun with Reaper. Digital audio workstation software written by the charmingly named Cockos Inc. I remember trying an early version years ago and hating it, but it has come a long way. I’ve tried most of the DAWs, and I think Reaper is now my favourite, especially when you can buy a personal-use license for 60 bucks! (I bought it.) It is available for Mac and Windows, and the bundled collection of plugins isn’t half bad.
To all electronics experts reading, I apologise for placing the setup so near a radiator! 🙂
So that’s reaping time, but what about the sheeping time? Well you know the old problem, when you need to edit the DNA of a cloned sheep but all you can find is an ancient gene splicing program that runs on classic Mac OS. Happens to us all.
I obtained a copy of the SheepShaver Mac emulator for Windows, and a ROM file and ready-to-use Mac OS 9 disk image from redundantrobot.com. I put it all on my old Windows laptop for a test. And, it werked!
This article (series of them with any luck) is inspired by Nick de Smith’s Quad 405 project. He was getting better distortion figures than my Blameless build: 0.002% at 20kHz! And from an amp that operated in Class-B and needed no bias adjustment or thermal compensation, how could this be? I had tried to understand the current dumping concept before, and failed, but this time I was determined!
And this time I had some help from Keith Snook’s excellent resource on the Quad amps. His series of “DCD Mods” to the original Quad circuit actually make the operating principle clearer. And, he had a copy of the classic Wireless World article: “Current dumping – does it really work?” by Lipshitz and Vanderkooy.
So here is a simple, intuitive (and maybe even correct? 🙂 ) explanation of how current dumping works. Please refer to Snook’s DCD Mod-3 schematic, as well as the diagrams below, in which I’ve reduced the circuit to the bare minimum possible.
You can see that the amp consists of three parts. First, a Class-A, current feedback error amp. In the DCD Mod-3 circuit, the inverting input of this amp is TR2 emitter, the non-inverting input is TR2 base, and the output is TR7 collector.
Second, a hefty Class-B output stage that runs with no idle current. In the DCD Mod-3 this is TR8, TR9, TR10 and associated parts.
Third, what Nick de Smith referred to as the “Maxwell-Wien Bridge”. This is obvious in the DCD Mod-3 schematic. I’ve drawn it in the same way here, but I’ve labelled the components Z1, Z2, Z3, Z4 in accordance with Walker and Albinson’s original analysis.
Then, to make things a little clearer, I’ve drawn the circuit again, but replaced Z2 and Z4 with resistors, of values roughly equivalent to their reactances at 20kHz.
We’re now in a position to see intuitively how the circuit works. The error amp is looking at the output from the output stage, fed back to its inverting input through Z1, and comparing it to the desired audio signal on its non-inverting input. It amplifies the error by a factor of -(Z2/Z1) which is -100 in my circuit. This amplified error drives the output stage, like in any normal audio amplifier. But a portion of it is also fed forward directly to the speaker through Z3. This forms a potential divider with Z4, so the speaker sees the fed-forward signal attenuated by a factor of roughly Z3/Z4, which is 100.
So, the error got amplified by -100 and then attenuated by 100 again. It follows that the error gain to the speaker is just -1. In other words, an equal and opposite signal cancelling the original error, to give a perfect output. So, we’ve rederived the original Walker balance condition: Z2/Z1 = Z3/Z4, or Z1Z3 = Z2Z4 as Walker wrote it.
(I’ve taken some liberties with a “1” here and there: the potential divider really attenuates by a factor of 101. But so did Walker and Albinson and everyone else. I’ve also assumed that the output stage’s output impedance is negligible, and its input impedance is high enough not to load the error amp down and kill the feedforward signal. Again, I believe these assumptions were also made in the Quad 405 design.)
However, as every amplifier geek knows, Z2 is a capacitor and Z4 is an inductor. In fact, I remember Quad’s full page ads in the hi-fi press, that showed nothing but a picture of the inductor and the Queen’s Award logo.
Intuitively, what now happens is that the error amp integrates the error, but Z3 and Z4 are now a high-pass network that differentiates it again, so the feedforward works just the same as if Z2 and Z4 were resistive. But using reactances leads to some elegant synergies: each one ends up doing at least two good things at once, hence presumably the Queen’s Award.
Using a capacitor for Z2 gives classic dominant pole “Miller” compensation for the error amp, with all the associated benefits.
Using an inductor for Z4 saves power, isolates the output stage from nasty capacitive loads, and low-pass filters the remaining distortion harmonics.
Indeed, Z2 is the compensation cap, and Z4 the output coil, that most classic power amp designs need anyway. The only component that a classic amp doesn’t have is Z3. This suggests to me that an ordinary amp could be converted to a current dumper by just adding a resistor from the driver stage through to the speaker end of the output coil. (It also suggests that Quad’s ads should have showed a 47 ohm resistor instead of an inductor.)
A current-feedback amp with a hefty driver, like the Alexander, seems like it would be the best candidate, but I think it should be possible with a “Blameless” type voltage-feedback circuit, too. The only complication is that when you go to voltage feedback, Z1 isn’t a single resistor any more. Its effective value, as far as bridge balance is concerned, is the attenuation through the feedback network, divided by the input stage transconductance.
I could be wrong, but if this is true then the usual Blameless values give a value for Z1 of about 2500 ohms. That means the output coil would need to be 5 times bigger, or Z3 5 times smaller. That makes it 8 ohms, so in order to drive it, the error amp becomes an output stage and we’re back to square one! So, the Alexander is a much more attractive candidate for conversion, as it has Z1 = 750 ohms and Z2 = 100pF, giving a value for Z3/Z4 similar to the Quad 405.
I’ll leave you with a puzzle: In the DCD Mod-3 circuit (and indeed every other Quad 405 circuit) what are D5 and D13 for?